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This SNP in the ACE gene, also known as G12269A, is reported to influence how quickly African Americans respond to the anti-hypertensive drug ramipril. rs4344(A;A) and rs4344(G;G) homozygotes are able to reach lower blood pressure levels upon treatment with ramipril sooner than rs4344(A;G) heterozygotes. The odds ratio reported for this study, comparing both homozygotes to heterozygotes, is 1.86 (CI: 1.32-3.23). [PMID 17885551]

Note that this SNP is in almost complete linkage disequilibrium with the insertion/deletion ACE gene SNP.

[PMID 18194558] A hierarchical and modular approach to the discovery of robust associations in genome-wide association studies from pooled DNA samples.


[PMID 19963597] Visual exploration of genetic association with voxel-based imaging phenotypes in an MCI/AD study.


[PMID 20215856] Genetic association of angiogenesis- and hypoxia-related gene polymorphisms with osteonecrosis of the femoral head.


[PMID 21052031] Identification of genetic factors associated with susceptibility to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors-induced cough.

rs4344

Parent Gene: ACE
Importance: 1
Minor Allele: G = 47%
Major Allele: A = 53%
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