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G>A conversion, also known as TaqIA (or Taq1A), in the gene dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2).

 

G = DRD2*A2 = Wild-type allele

A = DRD2*A1 = Alternate allele

 

G:G (46.6%) = Normal levels of dopamine D2 receptors

G:A (41.7%) = Lower levels of dopamine D2 receptors

A:A (11.7%) = Lower levels of dopamine D2 receptors

 

The minor allele, A (A1), creates a dominant effect.

 

Findings for the Minor Allele, A1 (A:A) and (G:A):

  • More likely to be extraverted (R)

  • Impaired ability to learn from mistakes

  • Increased risk of drug abuse

  • Increased risk of obesity

  • Increased association between obesity and substance abuse

 

Findings for the Major Allele, A2 (G:G):

  • Increased risk of depression following stressful life events

  • Leftward orientation bias

 

In a probabilistic learning task, A1-allele carriers (A:A and G:A) with reduced dopamine D2 receptor densities learned to avoid actions with negative consequences less efficiently [R].

Individuals with the A1 allele (A:A and G:A) showed increased improvements in a working memory training program [R].

Obese individuals who also had a substance abuse disorder were significantly more likely to have the A1 allele (A:A and G:A). This association increased when considering cases of severe substance abuse [R].

From 282 Dutch adolescents a correlation between risky alcohol use and the A1 allele (A:A and G:A) was reported [R].

Following administration of cocaine, participants with the A1 allele (A:A and G:A) reported a greater ‘high’ and ‘like’ for the experience [R].

Two studies found association between the A1 allele (A:A and G:A) and substance (opioid and heroin) use. One study compared 6,846 opioid dependence cases with 4,187 controls [R] while the other compared 303 heroin dependent subjects and 555 healthy controls [R].

Of 202 severely obese individuals who participated in a weight loss program, young individuals with the A1 allele (A:A and G:A) exhibited problems in maintaining weight loss during the program [R].

Individuals carrying the A1 allele (A:A and G:A) were more likely to display emotional eating habits in adolescence as a response to parental psychological control [R].

An increased risk of tumor (adenoma) recurrence was reported for individuals who carry two copies of the A1 allele (A:A) [R].

Subjects with the A1 allele (A:A and G:A) recovered slower after a traumatic brain injury as assessed by memory and attention tests [R].

In a study of Han Chinese diagnosed with schizophrenia, female carriers of the A1 allele (A:A and G:A) showed a decreased age of onset [R].

A Finnish study of 1,611 young adults reported an increased risk of depression following stressful life events for individuals carrying two copies of the A2 allele (G:G) [R].

Healthy young Israeli Jewish individuals with two copies of the A2 allele (G:G) displayed an orientation bias towards the left [R].

An increased use of the striatum and proficiency at concatenative grammar learning was reported for individuals with two copies of the A2 allele (G:G) [R].

rs1800497

Parent Gene: DRD2
Importance: 5
Minor Allele: A = 33%
Major Allele: G = 67%
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