Summary of TNF
An Introduction to Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)
TNF is released by Macrophages, Dendritic cells, T cells, Fat cells, and Fibroblasts. TNF then affects various cells. In particular, it will affect cells that line our blood vessels (endothelial cells), which causes vascular problems and this strongly causes cancer, as it causes angiogenesis and increased blood vessel formation (hypervascularization).
It can also cause heart disease, kidney disease, and cognitive problems. TNF negatively affects paneth cells (in the intestine), causing cell death, leaky gut, IBS, and IBD. TNF stimulates macrophages and effector T cells, which leads to more inflammatory cytokine production and apoptosis resistance (which contributes to cancer). See my post on the immune system for a complete understanding.
TNF induces sleep and it increases non-rem sleep (R). Therefore, it's good to have this elevated somewhat at night when we want to fall asleep. TNF is elevated naturally in healthy people at night time.
The duration of daytime sleep in Alzheimer's disease correlated with the degree of functional impairment in the patient (R), which is a result of elevated inflammation. Other examples of daytime sleepiness in chronic inflammatory states are Parkinsons disease (R), traumatic brain injury (TBI) (R), stroke (R), heart failure (R), and type-2 diabetes (R).
If you decrease TNF, you will become more hungry and store more fat. Hence, it's not surprising that anti-TNF therapy results in weight gain -an average of 5.5kg or 11 pounds in only 12 weeks (R).
TNF plays a major role in many diseases and is a cytokine that is a performance killer. TNF can cause lasting harm by damaging your mitochondria (R). TNF makes you tired, lowers your mood and decreases cognitive and physical performance by suppressing orexin (R, R2, R3).
Orexin is an extremely important neurotransmitter for many bodily functions. Orexin performs a number of key roles in memory acquisition and consolidation, as well as in long-term memory reinforcement (R). Hence, if you have elevated inflammation, it will harm your cognitive performance (also by decreasing BDNF, etc). Read my article on increasing orexin.
TNF can also lower thyroid hormones, causing 'low T3 syndrome' (R). It can also lower testosterone (trended, but not significant) (R). TNF slows wound healing, which means you'll need more time to recover from exercise/injuries. (R, R2).
When your natural skin fungus gets out of control, the body attacks it with cytokines that include TNF (also IL-6, IL-1b, IL-8), which recruits other aspects of the immune system (R).
- Autoimmune disease: in general (R), Multiple Sclerosis (R), Behcet's (R), SLE (R), Scleroderma (R), Sarcoidosis (R), Hidradenitis suppurativa (R), Ankylosing spondylitis (R), Erythema nodosum leprosum (R)
- Heart disease (R) - Heart failure (R), Atherosclerosis (R), Stroke (R)
- Cancer in general (R), Melanoma (R)
- Insulin Resistance (R), Diabetes II (R)
- Alzheimer's (R), Parkinson's (R), ALS (R)
- Major Depression (R) - Depressed people had TNF levels that were about 3.97 pg/ml higher than healthy people (R).
- IBS (R, R2), Crohn's/Ulcerative Colitis (R)
- Rheumatoid Arthritis (R)
- Osteoporosis (R)
- Psoriasis (R), Eczema (R)
- Asthma (R), COPD (R). TNF stimulates various molecules which recruit eosinophils, neutrophils, and lymphocytes to the airway. TNF can induce corticosteroid resistance (R).
- OCD - only sometimes (R), Schizophrenia (R), Bipolar (R, R2), Anorexia (R)
- PCOS (R) - TNF shifts production of cortisol to testosterone, hence causing PCOS (R).
- Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (R), Fibromyalgia (R) - contradictory (R).
- Others: Tinnitus (R), Epilepsy (R), Cystic Fibrosis (R), Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy (R), Diabetic Neuropathy (R), Chronic liver disease (R), Fatty Liver (R)
It's better to have this gene decreased most of the time.
Recommended name:Tumor necrosis factor
Tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 2
- RS1041981 (TNF) ??
- RS1799724 (TNF) ??
- RS1799964 (TNF) ??
- RS1800610 (TNF) ??
- RS1800629 (TNF) ??
- RS1800630 (TNF) ??
- RS1800750 (TNF) ??
- RS2229094 (TNF) ??
- RS2844484 (TNF) ??
- RS3093662 (TNF) ??
- RS3093665 (TNF) ??
- RS3093668 (TNF) ??
- RS3093726 (TNF) ??
- RS361525 (TNF) ??
- RS673 (TNF) ??
- RS909253 (TNF) ??
To see your genotype, you should be logged in and have a file with your genotype uploaded.
Top Gene-Substance Interactions
TNF Interacts with These Diseases
Top 16 Ways To Inhibit TNF
- Elemental diet (R)/ Lectin avoidance diet if lectin sensitive
- Fish/DHA (R)
- Calorie restriction (R)
- Fasting (R)
- Exercise (R)
- PQQ (R)
- Resveratrol (500mg, with 5g leucine) (R)
- Curcumin 2g (R)...powerful (R)
- Jasmine Tea (R)
- Cinnamon/Sodium Benzoate (R, R2)
- Black Cumin Seed Oil....powerful (R)
- Rooibos (R)
- Carob (R)
- Licorice (R)
- Niagen NAD+ (R)
- Kombucha/Lactic acid (R)
- 2g Hops (xanthohumol) (R)...potent. Take before bed.
You can check if your fatigue, mood and motivation issues are related to TNF by measuring blood TNF-alpha levels. See more at: How To Increase Performance and Improve Health By Inhibiting TNF-alpha
Substances That Increase TNF
Substances That Decrease TNF
This cytokine has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including autoimmune diseases, insulin resistance, and cancer. It is mainly secreted by macrophages and can induce cell death of certain tumor cell lines. It potently causes fever by direct action or by stimulation of interleukin-1 secretion and is implicated in the induction of cachexia. Impairs regulatory T-cells (Treg) function in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis via FOXP3 dephosphorylation. The TNF intracellular domain (ICD) form induces IL12 production in dendritic cells.
Conditions with Increased Gene Activity
|Condition||Change (log2fold)||Comparison||Species||Experimental variables||Experiment name|
Conditions with Decreased Gene Activity
|Condition||Change (log2fold)||Comparison||Species||Experimental variables||Experiment name|
The following transcription factors affect gene expression (R):
- Systemic lupus erythematosus
- Toll-like receptor signaling pathway
- Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)
- Antigen processing and presentation
- Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity
- T cell receptor signaling pathway
- Rheumatoid arthritis
- TGF-beta signaling pathway
- Adipocytokine signaling pathway
- MAPK signaling pathway
- Allograft rejection
- Alzheimer's disease
- Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
- Type I diabetes mellitus
- Type II diabetes mellitus
- RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway
- NOD-like receptor signaling pathway
- African trypanosomiasis
- Fc epsilon RI signaling pathway
- Hematopoietic cell lineage
- Hepatitis C
- Graft-versus-host disease
- Osteoclast differentiation
- Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis)
- Dilated cardiomyopathy
- Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction
- Protease Binding
- Cytokine Activity
- Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Binding
- Identical Protein Binding
- Transcription Regulatory Region Dna Binding
- Protein Import Into Nucleus, Translocation
- Negative Regulation Of Transcription From Rna Polymerase Ii Promoter
- Mapk Cascade
- Activation Of Mapkkk Activity
- Activation Of Mapk Activity
- Positive Regulation Of Cytokine Production
- Positive Regulation Of Protein Phosphorylation
- Chronic Inflammatory Response To Antigenic Stimulus
- Negative Regulation Of Cytokine Secretion Involved In Immune Response
- Positive Regulation Of Chronic Inflammatory Response To Antigenic Stimulus
- Positive Regulation Of Humoral Immune Response Mediated By Circulating Immunoglobulin
- Glucose Metabolic Process
- Activation Of Cysteine-Type Endopeptidase Activity Involved In Apoptotic Process
- Inflammatory Response
- Humoral Immune Response
- I-Kappab Kinase/Nf-Kappab Signaling
- Jnk Cascade
- Extrinsic Apoptotic Signaling Pathway Via Death Domain Receptors
- Intrinsic Apoptotic Signaling Pathway In Response To Dna Damage
- Response To Virus
- Response To Salt Stress
- Positive Regulation Of Gene Expression
- Negative Regulation Of Gene Expression
- Negative Regulation Of Alkaline Phosphatase Activity
- Regulation Of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Mediated Signaling Pathway
- Negative Regulation Of Lipid Storage
- Extracellular Matrix Organization
- Osteoclast Differentiation
- Sequestering Of Triglyceride
- Cortical Actin Cytoskeleton Organization
- Positive Regulation Of Protein Complex Assembly
- Positive Regulation Of Fever Generation
- Lipopolysaccharide-Mediated Signaling Pathway
- Negative Regulation Of Interleukin-6 Production
- Positive Regulation Of Chemokine Production
- Positive Regulation Of Interferon-Gamma Production
- Positive Regulation Of Interleukin-6 Production
- Positive Regulation Of Interleukin-8 Production
- Receptor Biosynthetic Process
- Positive Regulation Of Peptidyl-Serine Phosphorylation
- Tumor Necrosis Factor-Mediated Signaling Pathway
- Positive Regulation Of Heterotypic Cell-Cell Adhesion
- Negative Regulation Of Myosin-Light-Chain-Phosphatase Activity
- Positive Regulation Of Nf-Kappab Import Into Nucleus
- Positive Regulation Of Apoptotic Process
- Positive Regulation Of Programmed Cell Death
- Regulation Of I-Kappab Kinase/Nf-Kappab Signaling
- Positive Regulation Of I-Kappab Kinase/Nf-Kappab Signaling
- Negative Regulation Of Protein Complex Disassembly
- Positive Regulation Of Protein Complex Disassembly
- Positive Regulation Of Cysteine-Type Endopeptidase Activity Involved In Apoptotic Process
- Positive Regulation Of Map Kinase Activity
- Protein Kinase B Signaling
- Positive Regulation Of Jun Kinase Activity
- Negative Regulation Of Growth Of Symbiont In Host
- Negative Regulation Of Viral Genome Replication
- Positive Regulation Of Chemokine Biosynthetic Process
- Positive Regulation Of Interleukin-8 Biosynthetic Process
- Positive Regulation Of Nitric Oxide Biosynthetic Process
- Negative Regulation Of Fat Cell Differentiation
- Negative Regulation Of Myoblast Differentiation
- Negative Regulation Of Osteoblast Differentiation
- Positive Regulation Of Osteoclast Differentiation
- Positive Regulation Of Cell Adhesion
- Positive Regulation Of Protein Kinase Activity
- Negative Regulation Of Transcription, Dna-Templated
- Positive Regulation Of Transcription, Dna-Templated
- Positive Regulation Of Transcription From Rna Polymerase Ii Promoter
- Positive Regulation Of Translational Initiation By Iron
- Negative Regulation Of Glucose Import
- Embryonic Digestive Tract Development
- Positive Regulation Of Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation
- Positive Regulation Of Cytokine Secretion
- Positive Regulation Of Phagocytosis
- Regulation Of Insulin Secretion
- Defense Response To Gram-Positive Bacterium
- Leukocyte Tethering Or Rolling
- Negative Regulation Of Lipid Catabolic Process
- Regulation Of Immunoglobulin Secretion
- Positive Regulation Of Membrane Protein Ectodomain Proteolysis
- Positive Regulation Of Sequence-Specific Dna Binding Transcription Factor Activity
- Positive Regulation Of Nf-Kappab Transcription Factor Activity
- Positive Regulation Of Protein Transport
- Response To Glucocorticoid
- Positive Regulation Of Nfat Protein Import Into Nucleus
- Positive Regulation Of Hair Follicle Development
- Positive Regulation Of Protein Kinase B Signaling
- Positive Regulation Of Vitamin D Biosynthetic Process
- Positive Regulation Of Calcidiol 1-Monooxygenase Activity
- Epithelial Cell Proliferation Involved In Salivary Gland Morphogenesis
- Regulation Of Branching Involved In Salivary Gland Morphogenesis
- Negative Regulation Of Branching Involved In Lung Morphogenesis
- Positive Regulation Of Erk1 And Erk2 Cascade
- Cellular Response To Amino Acid Stimulus
- Cellular Response To Nicotine
- Cellular Response To Organic Cyclic Compound
- Death-Inducing Signaling Complex Assembly
- Positive Regulation Of Mononuclear Cell Migration
- Positive Regulation Of Podosome Assembly
- Establishment Of Protein Localization To Plasma Membrane
- Extrinsic Apoptotic Signaling Pathway
- Necroptotic Signaling Pathway
- Positive Regulation Of Nik/Nf-Kappab Signaling
- Positive Regulation Of Superoxide Dismutase Activity
- Regulation Of Establishment Of Endothelial Barrier
- Negative Regulation Of Bicellular Tight Junction Assembly
- Positive Regulation Of Leukocyte Adhesion To Vascular Endothelial Cell
- Positive Regulation Of Leukocyte Adhesion To Arterial Endothelial Cell
- Positive Regulation Of Protein Localization To Cell Surface
- Positive Regulation Of Ceramide Biosynthetic Process
- Positive Regulation Of Blood Microparticle Formation
- Positive Regulation Of Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 2 Production
- Negative Regulation Of Extrinsic Apoptotic Signaling Pathway In Absence Of Ligand
- Certolizumab Pegol
- Isopropyl Alcohol