Summary of OXTR
OXTR is the receptor that oxytocin binds to.
Oxytocin does the following in our body (R):
- Decreases inflammation and improves wound healing.
- Increases female sexual interest in males.
- Evokes feelings of contentment, reductions in anxiety, and feelings of calmness and security when in the company of a mate.
- Reduces the excretion of urine and sodium slightly.
- Indirectly inhibits the release of stress hormones such as cortisol.
- Increases trust and generosity.
- Reduces the fear of social betrayal in humans.
- Makes people more trustful - only when there is no reason to be distrustful.
- Inhibits fear responses by inhibiting activation of the amygdala.
- Enhances all social emotions, since oxytocin (nasal) also increases envy and Schadenfreude (joy at downfall).
- Increases romantic attraction and attachment in males as well and helps promote fidelity within monogamous relationships.
- Increases generosity.
- Increases empathy in healthy males.
- Decreases memory of bad experiences and increases memory for social information.
- Inhibits the development of tolerance to various addictive drugs (opiates, cocaine, alcohol), and reduces withdrawal symptoms.
- Oxytocin increased a father's overall stress response when dealing with their infant and challenged with a stressor.
- Increases in-group favoritism.
- Increases anxiety to unpredictable people/behavior (R).
- Boosts anti-social behaviors towards unfamiliar individuals (R).
- Promotes ethnocentric behavior (R). It has thus been hypothesized that this hormone may be a factor in xenophobic tendencies.
- Promotes dishonesty when the outcome of lying benefited the group to which an individual belonged (the in-group). (R)
- Suppresses appetite. (R)
The Function of OXTR
Receptor for oxytocin. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system.
Recommended name:Oxytocin receptor
- RS1042778 (OXTR) ??
- RS13316193 (OXTR) ??
- RS17049612 (OXTR) ??
- RS2254298 (OXTR) ??
- RS2268490 (OXTR) ??
- RS2268491 (OXTR) ??
- RS2268494 (OXTR) ??
- RS237887 (OXTR) ??
- RS237897 (OXTR) ??
- RS237899 (OXTR) ??
- RS4686302 (OXTR) ??
- RS53576 (OXTR) ??
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Top Gene-Substance Interactions
OXTR Interacts with These Diseases
Falling in love, having sex/sexual stimulation, nursing and having positive social encounters all increase oxytocin. (R) Soothing music can also increase oxytocin (R). Both humans and dog oxytocin levels in the blood rose after five to 24 minutes of a petting session (R). Activating your 5HT1A receptors, 5HT2A receptors (R) and 5HT2C receptors (not a good idea) also release oxytocin. You can activate these receptors with 5-htp. I also get some from probiotics, which have L Reuteri in it (R). The problem is oxytocin doesn't cross the brain barrier. High dose vitamin C is also capable of increasing oxytocin (R). Oxytocin requires Magnesium and cholesterol to function, so make sure you're getting enough of those. (R) Supplement Recommendations:
Substances That Increase OXTR
Substances That Decrease OXTR
Oxytocin plays an important role in social behavior and wound healing. (R)
Oxytocin is thought to decrease inflammation by decreasing certain cytokines. Thus, the increased release of oxytocin following positive social interactions has the potential to improve wound healing. (R)
Oxytocin is important for female sexual interest in males. In mice, a lack of oxytocin (receptor) in female mice resulted in a loss of social interest in male mice specifically during the sexually receptive phase of the estrous cycle. (R)
Oxytocin evokes feelings of contentment, reductions in anxiety, and feelings of calmness and security when in the company of a mate. (R)
Due to its similarity to vasopressin, it can reduce the excretion of urine and sodium slightly. (R)
Oxytocin, under certain circumstances, indirectly inhibits release of stress hormones such as cortisol and, in those situations, may be considered an antagonist of vasopressin. (R)
Giving oxytocin to people increases trust and generosity. (R)
It reduces the fear of social betrayal in humans. (R)
Disclosure of emotional events is a sign of trust in humans. When recounting a negative event, humans who receive oxytocin (nasal) share more emotional details and stories with more emotional significance. (R)
Even after experiencing social alienation, humans who received oxytocin were still more trustful. (R)
Oxytocin can efficiently inhibit fear responses by inhibiting activation of the amygdala. (R)
Some researchers have argued oxytocin has a general enhancing effect on all social emotions since oxytocin (nasal) also increases envy and Schadenfreude (joy at downfall). (R)
Oxytocin only increases trust when there is no reason to be distrustful. When there is a reason to be distrustful, such as experiencing betrayal, oxytocin functions differently. (R)
Oxytocin increases romantic attraction and attachment in males as well and helps promote fidelity within monogamous relationships. (R)
Oxytocin increases generosity in the Ultimatum Game by 80%.(R)
This is a game where someone receives money and proposes how to divide the sum between himself and another player. The second player chooses to either accept or reject this proposal. If the second player accepts, the money is split according to the proposal. If the second player rejects, neither player receives any money. Oxytocin supplementation increases empathy in healthy males. (R)
Supplemental oxytocin can decrease memory of bad experiences and increase memory for social information. (R)
For example, males given oxytocin show improved memory for human faces, in particular, happy faces. They also show improved recognition for positive social cues over threatening social cues and improved recognition of fear. (R)
According to some studies in animals, oxytocin inhibits the development of tolerance to various addictive drugs (opiates, cocaine, alcohol), and reduces withdrawal symptoms. (R)
Oxytocin increased a father's overall stress response when dealing with their infant and challenged with a stressor. (R)
Oxytocin and In-Group Favoritism
Oxytocin can also cause anxiety in some cases in humans. Oxytocin excites brain structures that cause anxiety to uncertainty (the BNST and activating CRH neurons). (R)
Therefore, when extended to the social domain, unfamiliar individuals whose behavior is inherently unpredictable will not result in empathy, and instead cause anxiety/dislike. (R)
Oxytocin may strengthen existing social bonds (for example, between relatives/friends), but it does not help create new bonds between strangers, implying that it is less of a ˜love or ˜moral molecule than a ˜us and them molecule. (R)
Indeed, oxytocin boosts anti-social behaviors towards unfamiliar individuals. (R)
Oxytocin can increase positive attitudes toward individuals with similar characteristics, who then become classified as in-group members, whereas individuals who are dissimilar become classified as out-group members. (R)
Oxytocin promotes ethnocentric behavior, incorporating the trust and empathy of in-groups with their suspicion and rejection of outsiders. (R)
Oxytocin was shown to promote dishonesty when the outcome of lying benefited the group to which an individual belonged (the in-group). (R)
When given oxytocin, individuals alter their subjective preferences in order to align with in-group ideals over out-group ideals. (R)
The in-group bias is evident in smaller groups; however, it can also be extended to groups as large as one's entire country leading toward a tendency of strong national zeal. A study done in the Netherlands showed that oxytocin increased the in-group favoritism of their nation while decreasing acceptance of members of other ethnicities and foreigners.(R)
It has thus been hypothesized that this hormone may be a factor in xenophobic tendencies. (R)
Further, oxytocin was correlated with participant desire to protect vulnerable in-group members. (R)
Oxytocin and Appetite
Recent evidence has suggested that oxytocin neurons in the hypothalamus may play a key role in suppressing appetite under normal conditions and that other hypothalamic neurons may trigger eating via inhibition of these oxytocin neurons. (R) This population of oxytocin neurons is absent in Prader-Willi syndrome, a genetic disorder that leads to uncontrollable feeding and obesity. (R)
Conditions with Increased Gene Activity
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Conditions with Decreased Gene Activity
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The following transcription factors affect gene expression:
- Suckling Behavior
- Response To Amphetamine
- Regulation Of Systemic Arterial Blood Pressure By Vasopressin
- Muscle Contraction
- Cell Surface Receptor Signaling Pathway
- Positive Regulation Of Cytosolic Calcium Ion Concentration
- Heart Development
- Female Pregnancy
- Positive Regulation Of Norepinephrine Secretion
- Telencephalon Development
- Positive Regulation Of Synaptic Transmission, Gabaergic
- Response To Estradiol
- Response To Progesterone
- Cellular Response To Hormone Stimulus
- Response To Anoxia
- Response To Cytokine
- Social Behavior
- Response To Cocaine
- Maternal Behavior
- Sperm Ejaculation
- Eating Behavior
- Response To Peptide Hormone
- Estrous Cycle
- Positive Regulation Of Blood Pressure
- Positive Regulation Of Vasoconstriction
- Digestive Tract Development
- Positive Regulation Of Synapse Assembly
- Positive Regulation Of Synaptic Transmission, Glutamatergic
- Maternal Process Involved In Parturition
- Positive Regulation Of Penile Erection
- Negative Regulation Of Gastric Acid Secretion
- Erk1 And Erk2 Cascade
- Positive Regulation Of Uterine Smooth Muscle Contraction
- Response To Peptide