Summary of MYD88
This protein acts as a messenger for information relay between proteins outside the cell and those within. It transfers information from receptors called Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptors, which are important for an early response to foreign invaders.
In response to these signals from the receptors, the adaptor protein stimulates molecules which then turn on a group of interacting proteins called nuclear factor-kappa-B. These interacting proteins control the activity of many genes, including those that control the body's immune responses and its inflammatory interactions.
The Function of MYD88
Adapter protein involved in the Toll-like receptor and IL-1 receptor signaling pathway in the innate immune response. Acts via IRAK1, IRAK2, IRF7 and TRAF6, leading to NF-kappa-B activation, cytokine secretion and the inflammatory response. Increases IL-8 transcription. Involved in IL-18-mediated signaling pathway. Activates IRF1 resulting in its rapid migration into the nucleus to mediate an efficient induction of IFN-beta, NOS2/INOS, and IL12A genes. MyD88-mediated signaling in intestinal epithelial cells is crucial for maintenance of gut homeostasis and controls the expression of the antimicrobial lectin REG3G in the small intestine.
Recommended name:Myeloid differentiation primary response protein MyD88
Top Gene-Substance Interactions
MYD88 Interacts with These Diseases
If you have higher MyD88 activation:
- Quercetin (R),
- Cinnamon/Cinnamaldehyde (R),
- A paleo diet? Various plant lectins activate TLRs, especially wheat lectins (Ref).
If you have more MyD88 activation:
The Following Inhibit TLR4, which is the main activator of MyD88. So these will indirectly reduce MyD88 activation: Resveratrol (humans w/ inflammation, obesity, diabetes) (R), LDN (R), TanshioneII (R), Grape Seed Extract (R), Cyanidin-3-O-²-glucoside (C3G) - typical anthocyanin (R), B-glucans/Nutritional Yeast (R), Tea Polyphenols/Jasmine Tea (R), VIP (R), Quercetin (R), Garlic (R), Angelica/decursin (R), EGCG (R), Coptis/Berberine (R), Cinnamon/Cinnamaldehyde (R), Curcumin (R), Ginkgo (R), Licorice (R), Walnut (R), Luteolin (R), Peony root (R), Panax Ginseng aq (s aureus mice, sepsis) (R), Panax notoginseng (DCs-inflammation) (R), Rhubarb (R), Salvia M (R), Tripterygium wilfordii (R), Ginger (R), Grape skin polyphenols (fat cells) (R).
Substances That Increase MYD88
Substances That Decrease MYD88
This protein acts as a messenger for information relay between proteins outside the cell and those within. It transfers information from receptors called Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptors, which are important for an early response to foreign invaders. In response to these signals from the receptors, the adaptor protein stimulates molecules which then turn on a group of interacting proteins called nuclear factor-kappa-B.
These interacting proteins control the activity of many genes, including those that control the body's immune responses and its inflammatory interactions. The nuclear factor-kappa-B proteins also protect the cells from signals that would cause self-destruction of cells (apoptosis). [R]
Changes in the MYD88 gene (mutation) have been known to cause a deficiency in the protein. People with these mutations experience/ develop recurrent bacterial infections from pus-forming bacteria. This gene mutation is inherited and is found in all cells in the body (germline mutation).
The mutated MYD88 gene produces either nonfunctional protein or no protein at all. Because of this, the protein cannot relay information from outside receptors to the right molecules which form the immune response to foreign bodies. As a result, severe infections occur. [R] These infections can be fatal at infancy and childhood but become less frequent after the age of 10. [R]
Another mutation of the MYD88 gene is associated with the rare blood cancer, Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia. This is caused by an excess of abnormal white blood cells called lymphoplasmacytic cells in the bone marrow and overproduction of a protein called IgM.
The mutation causes a change in the structure of the protein which causes it to become overactive. This causes the stimulation of nuclear factor-kappa-B. As stated earlier, the NF-kappa-B protects the cells from some signals which can cause them to self-destruct, however when the NF-kappa-B is overactive it allows even abnormal white blood cells to survive. This mutation occurs over a person's lifetime and is not inherited (somatic mutation).[R]
MyD88 deficiency At least four mutations in the MYD88 gene have been found to cause a condition called MyD88 deficiency. Individuals with this condition develop recurrent bacterial infections. Unlike in Waldenström macroglobulinemia and other blood disorders (described below), the gene mutations that cause MYD88 deficiency are inherited and are found in every cell of the body (known as germline mutations). These mutations result in the production of a nonfunctional protein or no protein at all. As a result, the protein cannot relay signals that stimulate an immune response, which allows multiple severe infections to develop. Waldenström macroglobulinemia A particular mutation in the MYD88 gene is found in more than 90 percent of people with Waldenström macroglobulinemia. This rare form of blood cancer is characterized by an excess of abnormal white blood cells called lymphoplasmacytic cells in the bone marrow and overproduction of a protein called IgM. The mutation involved in this condition changes a single protein building block (amino acid) in the MyD88 protein, replacing the amino acid leucine with the amino acid proline at position 265 (written as Leu265Pro or L265P). The mutation is acquired during a person's lifetime and is present only in the abnormal white blood cells. This type of genetic change, called a somatic mutation, is not inherited. Waldenström macroglobulinemia is thought to result from multiple genetic changes, including the MYD88 gene mutation. The altered MyD88 protein is constantly functioning (overactive). It stimulates the signaling molecules that activate nuclear factor-kappa-B, even without signals from outside the cell. Researchers suggest that abnormally active nuclear factor-kappa-B allows survival of abnormal cells that should undergo apoptosis, which may contribute to the accumulation of lymphoplasmacytic cells in Waldenström macroglobulinemia. other cancers The somatic L265P mutation in the MYD88 gene is also found in some cases of other blood cell cancers, including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and marginal zone lymphoma. The mechanism by which the mutation contributes to development of the condition is thought to be the same as in Waldenström macroglobulinemia (described above). The type of cancer that develops is likely determined by the type of cell that acquires the L265P mutation. This mutation is thought to be one of many genetic changes involved in the development of these cancers. other disorders The L265P mutation is also found in about 50 to 80 percent of cases of a blood disorder called IgM monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (IgM-MGUS). Individuals with this condition have slightly elevated levels of IgM in the blood. IgM-MGUS can transform into Waldenström macroglobulinemia (described above) or other blood cell cancers or disorders; when the MYD88 gene mutation is present in IgM-MGUS, the condition is more likely to progress.
The MYD88 gene provides instructions for making a protein involved in signaling within immune cells. The MyD88 protein acts as an adapter, connecting proteins that receive signals from outside the cell to the proteins that relay signals inside the cell. In particular, MyD88 transfers signals from certain proteins called Toll-like receptors and interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptors, which are important for an early immune response to foreign invaders such as bacteria. In response to signals from these receptors, the MyD88 adapter protein stimulates signaling molecules that turn on a group of interacting proteins known as nuclear factor-kappa-B. Nuclear factor-kappa-B regulates the activity of multiple genes, including genes that control the body's immune responses and inflammatory reactions. It also protects cells from certain signals that would otherwise cause them to self-destruct (undergo apoptosis).
Conditions with Increased Gene Activity
|Condition||Change (log2fold)||Comparison||Species||Experimental variables||Experiment name|
Conditions with Decreased Gene Activity
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The following transcription factors affect gene expression:
- Toll-Like Receptor Signaling Pathway
- Myd88-Dependent Toll-Like Receptor Signaling Pathway
- Apoptotic Process
- Inflammatory Response
- Signal Transduction
- Cell Surface Receptor Signaling Pathway
- Positive Regulation Of Type I Interferon Production
- Positive Regulation Of Interleukin-17 Production
- Positive Regulation Of Interleukin-23 Production
- Positive Regulation Of Interleukin-6 Production
- Toll-Like Receptor 9 Signaling Pathway
- Negative Regulation Of Apoptotic Process
- Positive Regulation Of I-Kappab Kinase/Nf-Kappab Signaling
- Innate Immune Response
- Regulation Of Inflammatory Response
- Defense Response To Gram-Positive Bacterium
- Positive Regulation Of Nf-Kappab Transcription Factor Activity
- Response To Interleukin-1
- 3'-Utr-Mediated Mrna Stabilization
- Cellular Response To Mechanical Stimulus