The Function of ATR

Serine/threonine protein kinase which activates checkpoint signaling upon genotoxic stresses such as ionizing radiation (IR), ultraviolet light (UV), or DNA replication stalling, thereby acting as a DNA damage sensor. Recognizes the substrate consensus sequence [ST]-Q. Phosphorylates BRCA1, CHEK1, MCM2, RAD17, RPA2, SMC1 and p53/TP53, which collectively inhibit DNA replication and mitosis and promote DNA repair, recombination and apoptosis. Phosphorylates 'Ser-139' of histone variant H2AX/H2AFX at sites of DNA damage, thereby regulating DNA damage response mechanism. Required for FANCD2 ubiquitination. Critical for maintenance of fragile site stability and efficient regulation of centrosome duplication.

Protein names

Recommended name:

Serine/threonine-protein kinase ATR

Alternative name(s):

Ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein
FRAP-related protein 1

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Top Gene-Substance Interactions

ATR Interacts with These Diseases

Substances That Increase ATR

Substances That Decrease ATR

Advanced Summary

Conditions with Increased Gene Activity

Conditions with Decreased Gene Activity