Spermine is Found in These Foods
Top Gene Interactions
- Metabolism: Uremic toxins tend to accumulate in the blood either through dietary excess or through poor filtration by the kidneys. Most uremic toxins are metabolic waste products and are normally excreted in the urine or feces.
- Uses/Sources: For nutritional supplementation, also for treating dietary shortage or imbalance
- Health Effects: Chronic exposure to uremic toxins can lead to a number of conditions including renal damage, chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease.
- Symptoms: As a uremic toxin, this compound can cause uremic syndrome. Uremic syndrome may affect any part of the body and can cause nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and weight loss. It can also cause changes in mental status, such as confusion, reduced awareness, agitation, psychosis, seizures, and coma. Abnormal bleeding, such as bleeding spontaneously or profusely from a very minor injury can also occur. Heart problems, such as an irregular heartbeat, inflammation in the sac that surrounds the heart (pericarditis), and increased pressure on the heart can be seen in patients with uremic syndrome. Shortness of breath from fluid buildup in the space between the lungs and the chest wall (pleural effusion) can also be present.
- Treatment: Kidney dialysis is usually needed to relieve the symptoms of uremic syndrome until normal kidney function can be restored.
- Route of Exposure: Endogenous, Ingestion, Dermal (contact)
Mechanism of Action
|Target Name||Mechanism of Action||References|
Carbonic anhydrase 1
Carbonic anhydrase 2
Carbonic anhydrase 4
Carbonic anhydrase 3
Carbonic anhydrase 9
Carbonic anhydrase 12
Carbonic anhydrase 14
Carbonic anhydrase 5A, mitochondrial
Carbonic anhydrase 5B, mitochondrial
Carbonic anhydrase 6
Carbonic anhydrase 7
Beta-1 adrenergic receptor
Beta-2 adrenergic receptor
Solute carrier family 22 member 8
NADPH oxidase 4
Extracellular calcium-sensing receptor
Spermine Interacts with Diseases
|Disease||Inference Score||References/Inference Genes|
|Distal arthrogryposis type 2B||27.08||
|Myocardial Reperfusion Injury||20.34||
|CARDIOMYOPATHY, DILATED, 3B||9.72||
|Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental||8.89||
|Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2||8.62||