Top Gene Interactions
- Metabolism: Uremic toxins tend to accumulate in the blood either through dietary excess or through poor filtration by the kidneys. Most uremic toxins are metabolic waste products and are normally excreted in the urine or feces.
- Uses/Sources: Naturally produced by the body (endogenous).
- Health Effects: Chronic exposure to uremic toxins can lead to a number of conditions including renal damage, chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease.
- Symptoms: As a uremic toxin, this compound can cause uremic syndrome. Uremic syndrome may affect any part of the body and can cause nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and weight loss. It can also cause changes in mental status, such as confusion, reduced awareness, agitation, psychosis, seizures, and coma. Abnormal bleeding, such as bleeding spontaneously or profusely from a very minor injury can also occur. Heart problems, such as an irregular heartbeat, inflammation in the sac that surrounds the heart (pericarditis), and increased pressure on the heart can be seen in patients with uremic syndrome. Shortness of breath from fluid buildup in the space between the lungs and the chest wall (pleural effusion) can also be present.
- Treatment: Kidney dialysis is usually needed to relieve the symptoms of uremic syndrome until normal kidney function can be restored.
- Route of Exposure: Endogenous, Ingestion, Dermal (contact)
Mechanism of Action
|Target Name||Mechanism of Action||References|
NADPH oxidase 4
ADP-ribosyl cyclase 2
L-lactate dehydrogenase A chain
NAD-dependent protein deacylase sirtuin-5, mitochondrial
Solute carrier family 22 member 8
NAD-dependent protein deacetylase sirtuin-2
NAD-dependent protein deacetylase sirtuin-1
Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1
NAD-dependent protein deacetylase sirtuin-3, mitochondrial
Chemical Interacts with Diseases
Chemical Interacts with Genes
|SIRT1||Affects binding, Decreases reaction||Dogs (R)|
|RELA||Increases acetylation, Increases phosphorylation||Humans (R)|
|RUNX2||Affects binding, Decreases reaction||Dogs (R)|
|TNF||Decreases reaction, Increases expression||Humans (R)|
|CASP3||Increases cleavage||Humans (R)|
|FOXO1||Decreases reaction, Increases expression||Mice (R)|
|CAT||Affects cotreatment, Decreases activity, Decreases reaction||Rats (R)|
|CDKN1A||Decreases reaction, Increases expression||Humans (R)|
|CASP9||Affects cotreatment, Decreases activity, Decreases reaction||Mice (R)|
|PARP1||Decreases expression, Decreases reaction||Rats (R)|
|IL1B||Increases expression||Humans (R)|
|NFE2L2||Affects cotreatment, Decreases expression, Decreases reaction||Rats (R)|
|BAX||Increases expression||Humans (R)|
|KEAP1||Affects cotreatment, Decreases reaction, Increases expression||Rats (R)|
|PPARG||Increases expression||Dogs (R)|
|PPARGC1A||Decreases expression, Decreases reaction, Increases acetylation||Chickens (R)|
|HMGCR||Affects cotreatment, Decreases response to substance, Increases activity||Rats (R)|
|BCL2||Affects cotreatment, Decreases expression, Increases reaction||Humans (R)|
|IL6||Decreases expression||Humans (R)|
|LCAT||Affects cotreatment, Decreases activity, Decreases response to substance||Rats (R)|