Top Gene Interactions
- Metabolism: Metformin is not metabolized. Route of Elimination: Intravenous single-dose studies in normal subjects demonstrate that metformin is excreted unchanged in the urine and does not undergo hepatic metabolism (no metabolites have been identified in humans) nor biliary excretion. Approximately 90% of the drug is eliminated in 24 hours in those with healthy renal function. Renal clearance of metformin is approximately 3.5 times that of creatinine clearance, indicating the tubular secretion is the primary mode of metformin elimination. Half Life: 6.2 hours. Duration of action is 8-12 hours.
- Uses/Sources: For use as an adjunct to diet and exercise in adult patients (18 years and older) with NIDDM. May also be used for the management of metabolic and reproductive abnormalities associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Jentadueto is for the treatment of patients when both linagliptin and metformin is appropriate.
- Symptoms: Acute oral toxicity (LD50): 350 mg/kg [Rabbit]. It would be expected that adverse reactions of a more intense character including epigastric discomfort, nausea, and vomiting followed by diarrhea, drowsiness, weakness, dizziness, malaise and headache might be seen.
- Route of Exposure: Absorbed over 6 hours, bioavailability is 50 to 60% under fasting conditions. Administration with food decreases and delays absorption. Some evidence indicates that the level of absorption is not dose-related, suggesting that absorption occurs through a saturable process. Limited data from animal and human cell cultures indicate that absorption occurs through a passive, non-saturable process, possibly involving a paracellular route. Peak action occurs 3 hours after oral administration.
- Toxicity: Acute oral toxicity (LD<sub>50</sub>): 350 mg/kg [Rabbit].
Mechanism of Action
|Target Name||Mechanism of Action||References|
Solute carrier family 22 member 1
Dipeptidyl peptidase 4
Solute carrier family 22 member 2
|5'-AMP-activated protein kinase subunit beta-1||Metformin's pharmacologic mechanisms of action are different from other classes of oral antihyperglycemic agents. Metformin decreases hepatic glucose production, decreases intestinal absorption of glucose, and improves insulin sensitivity by increasing peripheral glucose uptake and utilization.||
Chemical Interacts with Diseases
Chemical Interacts with Genes
|PRKAA1||Decreases activity, Decreases phosphorylation, Decreases reaction||Humans (R)|
|IL13||Decreases reaction, Increases expression||Mice (R)|
|TNF||Decreases reaction, Increases expression||Humans (R)|
|PPARGC1A||Increases expression||Humans (R,R,R)|
|SLC22A2||Increases transport||None (R)|
|FSHB||Decreases reaction, Increases expression||Rats (R)|
|IL6||Decreases reaction, Increases secretion||Humans (R)|
|IL1B||Decreases reaction, Increases phosphorylation||Humans (R)|
|PRKAA2||Increases activity, Increases phosphorylation||Humans (R)|
|RELA||Decreases reaction, Increases phosphorylation||Humans (R)|
|INS||Affects cotreatment, Decreases expression||Humans (R)|
|CYP1A1||Decreases reaction, Increases activity, Increases expression||Humans (R)|
|SLC2A4||Affects reaction, Decreases expression||Humans (R)|
|HMOX1||Decreases expression, Increases reaction||Humans (R)|
|NQO1||Decreases reaction, Increases activity, Increases expression||Humans (R)|
|SLC22A3||Decreases reaction, Increases uptake||Humans (R)|
|NFE2L2||Affects localization, Decreases reaction, Increases stability||Humans (R)|
|SLC47A1||Decreases reaction, Increases uptake||Humans (R)|
|IGF1||Affects cotreatment, Decreases expression||Humans (R)|
|ABCB1||Decreases reaction, Increases expression||Humans (R)|