Top Gene Interactions
- Metabolism: Hepatic. Half Life: 2.5-3 hours.
- Uses/Sources: Ketamine is primarily used for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia, usually in combination with some sedative drug. Other uses include sedation in intensive care, analgesia (particularly in emergency medicine), and treatment of bronchospasm. It is also a popular anesthetic in veterinary medicine. [Wikipedia] For use as the sole anesthetic agent for diagnostic and surgical procedures that do not require skeletal muscle relaxation.
- Health Effects: Chronic use of ketamine may lead to cognitive impairments including memory problems. [Wikipedia]
- Symptoms: Ketamine has a wide range of effects in humans, including analgesia, anesthesia, hallucinations, elevated blood pressure, and bronchodilation.[Wikipedia]
- Treatment: Supportive ventilation should be employed. Mechanical support of respiration is preferred to administration of analeptics. (L1712)
- Route of Exposure: Rapidly absorbed following parenteral administration.
Mechanism of Action
|Target Name||Mechanism of Action||References|
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor
Kappa-type opioid receptor
Mu-type opioid receptor
Sodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2A
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2B
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2
Delta-type opioid receptor
D(2) dopamine receptor
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3A
|Ketamine has several clinically useful properties, including analgesia and less cardiorespiratory depressant effects than other anaesthetic agents, it also causes some stimulation of the cardiocascular system. Ketamine has been reported to produce general as well as local anaesthesia. It interacts with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, opioid receptors, monoaminergic receptors, muscarinic receptors and voltage sensitive Ca ion channels. Unlike other general anaesthetic agents, ketamine does not interact with GABA receptors.||