Definition

A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement. Occurs free in fruits, honey and plant juices. Major component of many oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Occurs in sucrose combined with fructose. Comly. available by the acid hydrol. of potato starch (Europe) and cornstarch (USA). Food additive: nutritive sweetener, humectant

Description

Glucose is a monosaccharide containing six carbon atoms and an aldehyde group and is therefore referred to as an aldohexose. The glucose molecule can exist in an open-chain (acyclic) and ring (cyclic) form, the latter being the result of an intramolecular reaction between the aldehyde C atom and the C-5 hydroxyl group to form an intramolecular hemiacetal. In water solution both forms are in equilibrium and at pH 7 the cyclic one is the predominant. Glucose is a primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. In animals glucose arises from the breakdown of glycogen in a process known as glycogenolysis. Glucose is synthesized in the liver and kidneys from non-carbohydrate intermediates, such as pyruvate and glycerol, by a process known as gluconeogenesis.

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