Top Gene Interactions
- Metabolism: Limited data from animal studies suggest that fluoxetine may undergo first-pass metabolism may occur via the liver and/or lungs. Fluoxetine appears to be extensively metabolized, likely in the liver, to norfluoxetine and other metabolites. Norfluoxetine, the principal active metabolite, is formed via N-demethylation of fluoxetine. Norfluoxetine appears to be comparable pharmacologic potency as fluoxetine. Fluoxetine and norfluoxetine both undergo phase II glucuronidation reactions in the liver. It is also thought that fluoxetine and norfluoxetine undergo O-dealkylation to form p-trifluoromethylphenol, which is then subsequently metabolized to hippuric acid. Route of Elimination: The primary route of elimination appears to be hepatic metabolism to inactive metabolites excreted by the kidney. The S-enantiomer is eliminated more slowly and is the predominant enantiomer present at steady state. Half Life: 1-3 days [acute administration]; 4-6 days [chronic administration]; 4-16 days [norfluoxetine, acute and chronic administration].
- Uses/Sources: Labeled indication include: major depressive disorder (MDD), moderate to severe bulimia nervosa, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, and combination treatment with olanzapine for treatment-resistant or bipolar I depression. Unlabeled indications include: selective mutism, mild dementia-associated agitation in nonpsychotic patients, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), social anxiety disorder, chronic neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, and Raynaud's phenomenon.
- Health Effects: Acute exposure to cholinesterase inhibitors can cause a cholinergic crisis characterized by severe nausea/vomiting, salivation, sweating, bradycardia, hypotension, collapse, and convulsions. Increasing muscle weakness is a possibility and may result in death if respiratory muscles are involved. Accumulation of ACh at motor nerves causes overstimulation of nicotinic expression at the neuromuscular junction. When this occurs symptoms such as muscle weakness, fatigue, muscle cramps, fasciculation, and paralysis can be seen. When there is an accumulation of ACh at autonomic ganglia this causes overstimulation of nicotinic expression in the sympathetic system. Symptoms associated with this are hypertension, and hypoglycemia. Overstimulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the central nervous system, due to accumulation of ACh, results in anxiety, headache, convulsions, ataxia, depression of respiration and circulation, tremor, general weakness, and potentially coma. When there is expression of muscarinic overstimulation due to excess acetylcholine at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors symptoms of visual disturbances, tightness in chest, wheezing due to bronchoconstriction, increased bronchial secretions, increased salivation, lacrimation, sweating, peristalsis, and urination can occur. Certain reproductive effects in fertility, growth, and development for males and females have been linked specifically to organophosphate pesticide exposure. Most of the research on reproductive effects has been conducted on farmers working with pesticides and insecticdes in rural areas. In females menstrual cycle disturbances, longer pregnancies, spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, and some developmental effects in offspring have been linked to organophosphate pesticide exposure. Prenatal exposure has been linked to impaired fetal growth and development. Neurotoxic effects have also been linked to poisoning with OP pesticides causing four neurotoxic effects in humans: cholinergic syndrome, intermediate syndrome, organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP), and chronic organophosphate-induced neuropsychiatric disorder (COPIND). These syndromes result after acute and chronic exposure to OP pesticides.
- Symptoms: Symptoms of overdose include agitation, restlessness, hypomania, and other signs of CNS excitation. The most frequent side effects include: nervous system effects such as anxiety, nervousness, insomnia, drowsiness, fatigue or asthenia, tremor, and dizziness or lightheadedness; GI effects such as anorexia, nausea, and diarrhea; vasodilation; dry mouth; abnormal vision; decreased libido; abnormal ejaculation; rash; and sweating. Withdrawal symptoms include flu-like symptoms, insomnia, nausea, imbalance, sensory changes and hyperactivity.
- Treatment: If the compound has been ingested, rapid gastric lavage should be performed using 5% sodium bicarbonate. For skin contact, the skin should be washed with soap and water. If the compound has entered the eyes, they should be washed with large quantities of isotonic saline or water. In serious cases, atropine and/or pralidoxime should be administered. Anti-cholinergic drugs work to counteract the effects of excess acetylcholine and reactivate AChE. Atropine can be used as an antidote in conjunction with pralidoxime or other pyridinium oximes (such as trimedoxime or obidoxime), though the use of '-oximes' has been found to be of no benefit, or possibly harmful, in at least two meta-analyses. Atropine is a muscarinic antagonist, and thus blocks the action of acetylcholine peripherally.
- Route of Exposure: Well absorbed from the GI tract following oral administration. Oral bioavailability is estimated to be at least 60-80%. Peak plasma concentrations occur within 6-8 hours following a single oral administration of a 40 mg dose. The oral solution and delayed-release capsule are bioequivalent. Food does not affect the systemic bioavailability of fluoxetine but it delays the absorption by 1-2 hours (not clinically significant). Prozac Weekly capsules, a delayed-release formulation, contain enteric-coated pellets that resist dissolution until reaching a segment of the gastrointestinal tract where the pH exceeds 5.5. The enteric coating delays the onset of absorption of fluoxetine 1 to 2 hours relative to the immediate-release formulations.
- Carcinogenicity: No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
- Toxicity: LD<sub>50</sub>=284mg/kg (orally in mice).
Mechanism of Action
|Target Name||Mechanism of Action||References|
Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 2
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2C
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2B
Alpha-2A adrenergic receptor
Sodium-dependent dopamine transporter
Sodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter
Histamine H1 receptor
Sigma non-opioid intracellular receptor 1
Histamine H3 receptor
Cyclin-dependent kinases regulatory subunit 1
|Sodium-dependent serotonin transporter||Metabolized to norfluoxetine, fluoxetine is a selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), it blocks the reuptake of serotonin at the serotonin reuptake pump of the neuronal membrane, enhancing the actions of serotonin on 5HT1A autoreceptors. SSRIs bind with significantly less affinity to histamine, acetylcholine, and norepinephrine receptors than tricyclic antidepressant drugs.||