Top Gene Interactions
- Metabolism: Completely absorbed from gastrointestinal tract. Chloroquine is partially metabolized; the major metabolite is desethylchloroquine. Desethylchloroquine also has antiplasmodial activity, but is slightly less active than chloroquine. Bisdesethylchloroquine, which is a carboxylic acid derivative, and several other unidentified metabolites are also formed in small amounts (A625). Route of Elimination: Excretion of chloroquine is quite slow, but is increased by acidification of the urine. Half Life: 1-2 months
- Uses/Sources: For the suppressive treatment and for acute attacks of malaria due to P. vivax, P.malariae, P. ovale, and susceptible strains of P. falciparum, Second-line agent in treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis (A308).
- Health Effects: Possible heath effects include an irreversible retinal damage, visual disturbances, nyctalopia; scotomatous vision with field defects of paracentral, pericentral ring types, and typically temporal scotomas, nerve type deafness; tinnitus, reduced hearing in patients with preexisting auditory damage. Other effects include pleomorphic skin eruptions, skeletal muscle myopathy, hypotension, electrocardiographic change as well as neuropsychiatric changes including psychosis, delirium, personality changes and depression (RxList, A308).
- Symptoms: Convulsive seizures. Mild and transient headache.
- Treatment: Treatment is symptomatic and must be prompt with immediate evacuation of the stomach by emesis (at home, before transportation to the hospital) or gastric lavage until the stomach is completely emptied. If finely powdered, activated charcoal is introduced by stomach tube, after lavage, and within 30 minutes after ingestion of the antimalarial, it may inhibit further intestinal absorption of the drug. To be effective, the dose of activated charcoal should be at least five times the estimated dose of chloroquine ingested. Convulsions, if present, should be controlled before attempting gastric lavage. (L1712)
- Route of Exposure: Inhalation Completely absorbed from gastrointestinal tract
Mechanism of Action
|Target Name||Mechanism of Action||References|
Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 2
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Glutathione S-transferase A2
Tumor necrosis factor
Hemoglobin subunit alpha
Toll-like receptor 9
|The mechanism of plasmodicidal action of chloroquine is not completely certain. Like other quinoline derivatives, it is thought to inhibit heme polymerase activity. This results in accumulation of free heme, which is toxic to the parasites.||