Definition

Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS. Obt. from Chitin BVM67-G by methods incl. alkaline hydrol. and thermochemical-chemical treatment. Used in edible coatings for fruit and vegetables and in biodegradable packaging films. Chitosan (pronounced /?ka?t?sæn/) is a linear polysaccharide composed of randomly distributed ?-(1-4)-linked D-glucosamine (deacetylated unit) and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (acetylated unit). It has a number of commercial and possible biomedical uses.; Chitosan can also be used in water processing engineering as a part of a filtration process. Chitosan causes the fine sediment particles to bind together and is subsequently removed with the sediment during sand filtration. Chitosan also removes phosphorus, heavy minerals, and oils from the water. Chitosan is an important additive in the filtration process. Sand filtration apparently can remove up to 50% of the turbidity alone while the chitosan with sand filtration removes up to 99% turbidity. Chitosan has been used to precipitate caseins from bovine milk and cheese making; Chitosan has a rich history of being researched for applications in agriculture and horticulture dating back to the 1980s. By 1989 Bentech Labs patented chitosan salt solutions applied to crops for improved freeze protection or to crop seed for seed priming. Shortly thereafter Bentech's chitosan salt received the first ever biopesticide label from the EPA. Numerous other chitosan patents for plants soon followed. Chitosan applications to protect plants have been used in space as well. NASA first flew a chitosan experiment to protect adzuki beans grown aboard the space shuttle and Mir space station in 1997 (see photo left). NASA results revealed chitosan induces increased growth (biomass) and pathogen resistance due to elevated levels of beta 1-3 glucanase enzymes within plant cells. NASA confirmed chitosan elicits the same effect in plants on earth. Over 20 years of R&D by DuPont/ConAgra Ventures (DCV) and AgriHouse Inc have gone into developing non-toxic low molecular weight chitosan polymer solutions safe enough for broad spectrum agricultural and horticultural use. In 2008, AgriHouse Inc, Denver [Berthoud], Colorado, was granted EPA natural broad spectrum elicitor status for YEA!® Yield Enhancing Agent, a liquid solution containing an ultra low molecular active ingredient of 0.25% chitosan. YEA! is a next generation natural chitosan elicitor solution for agriculture and horticultural and was granted an amended label for foliar and irrigation applications by the EPA in June, 2009. A milliliter of YEA! contains over 14.4 X 10¹³ bio-active low molecular weight chitosan molecules and it is 600 times more effective than common chitosan). Given its low potential for toxicity and its abundance in the natural environment, chitosan does not harm people, pets, wildlife, or the environment when used according to label directions. Agricultural chitosan facts are located on USDA and EPA web sites.; Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.; Chitosan can also be used in water processing engineering as a part of a filtration process. Chitosan causes the fine sediment particles to bind together and is subsequently removed with the sediment during sand filtration. Chitosan also removes phosphorous, heavy minerals, and oils from the water. Chitosan is an important additive in the filtration process. Sand filtration apparently can remove up to 50% of the turbidity alone while the Chitosan with sand filtration removes up to 99% turbidity.; Chitosan is a linear polysaccharide composed of randomly distributed beta(1->4)-linked D-glucosamine (deacetylated unit) and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (acetylated unit). It has a number of commercial amd possible biomedical uses.; In agriculture, chitosan is used primarily as a natural seed treatment and plant growth enhancer, and as a substance that boosts the ability of plants to defend against fungal infections. The natural biocontrol active ingredient, chitin/chitosan, are found in the shells of crustaceans, such as lobsters, crabs, and shrimp, and many other organisms including insects and fungi. It is one of the most abundant bio-gradable materials in the world. Degraded molecules of chitin/chitosan exist in soil and water. Chitosan applications for plants and crops are regulated by the EPA and the USDA National Organic Program regulates its use on organic certified farms and crops. It is approved for use outdoors and indoors on plants and crops grown commercially and by consumers. The natural biocontrol ability of chitosan should not be confused with the effects of fertilizers or pesticides upon plants or the environment. It represents a new tier of cost effective biological control of crops.

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