- Metabolism: Atorvastatin is extensively metabolized to ortho- and parahydroxylated derivatives and various beta-oxidation products. In vitro inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase by ortho- and parahydroxylated metabolites is equivalent to that of atorvastatin. Approximately 70% of circulating inhibitory activity for HMG-CoA reductase is attributed to active metabolites. CYP3A4 is also involved in the metabolism of atorvastatin.
- Uses/Sources: May be used as primary prevention in individuals with multiple risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) and as secondary prevention in individuals with CHD to reduce the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, angina, and revascularization procedures. May be used to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). May be used in the treatment of primary hypercholesterolemia and mixed dyslipidemia, homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, primary dysbetalipoproteinemia, and/or hypertriglyeridemia as an adjunct to dietary therapy to decrease serum total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein B (apoB), and triglyceride concentrations, while increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels.
- Route of Exposure: Atorvastatin is rapidly absorbed after oral administration with maximum plasma concentrations achieved in 1 to 2 hours. The absolute bioavailability of atorvastatin (parent drug) is approximately 14% and the systemic availability of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity is approximately 30%. The low systemic bioavailability is due to presystemic clearance by gastrointestinal mucosa and first-pass metabolism in the liver.
- Carcinogenicity: No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
- Toxicity: Generally well-tolerated. Side effects may include myalgia, constipation, asthenia, abdominal pain, and nausea. Other possible side effects include myotoxicity (myopathy, myositis, rhabdomyolysis) and hepatotoxicity. To avoid toxicity in Asian patients, lower doses should be considered.
Mechanism of Action
|Target Name||Mechanism of Action||References|
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor
3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase
Dipeptidyl peptidase 4