Definition

A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES. Widespread throughout animal and plant tissue, purine components of DNA, RNA, and coenzymes. Vitamin Adenine (sometimes known as vitamin B4) combines with the sugar ribose to form adenosine, which in turn can be bonded with from one to three phosphoric acid units, yielding AMP, ADP and ATP . These adenine derivatives perform important functions in cellular metabolism. Adenine is one of four nitrogenous bases utilized in the synthesis of nucleic acids. A modified form of adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) is an imporant secondary messenger in the propagation of many hormonal stimuli. Adenine is an integral part of the structure of many coenzymes. Adenosine (adenine with a ribose group) causes transient heart block in the AV node of the heart. In individuals suspected of suffering from a supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), adenosine is used to help identify the rhythm. Certain SVTs can be successfully terminated with adenosine.; Adenine forms adenosine, a nucleoside, when attached to ribose, and deoxyadenosine when attached to deoxyribose. It forms adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a nucleotide, when three phosphate groups are added to adenosine. Adenosine triphosphate is used in cellular metabolism as one of the basic methods of transferring chemical energy between chemical reactions.; Adenine is a nucleobase (a purine derivative) with a variety of roles in biochemistry including cellular respiration, in the form of both the energy-rich adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), and protein synthesis, as a chemical component of DNA and RNA. The shape of adenine is complementary to either thymine in DNA or uracil in RNA.; Adenine is a purine base. Adenine is found in both DNA and RNA. Adenine is a fundamental component of adenine nucleotides. Adenine forms adenosine, a nucleoside, when attached to ribose, and deoxyadenosine when attached to deoxyribose; Adenine is one of the two purine nucleobases (the other being guanine) used in forming nucleotides of the nucleic acids. In DNA, adenine binds to thymine via two hydrogen bonds to assist in stabilizing the nucleic acid structures. In RNA, which is used in the cytoplasm for protein synthesis, adenine binds to uracil.; In older literature, adenine was sometimes called Vitamin B4. It is no longer considered a true vitamin or part of the Vitamin B complex. However, two B vitamins, niacin and riboflavin, bind with adenine to form the essential cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), respectively. Hermann Emil Fischer was one of the early scientists to study Adenine.; it forms adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a nucleotide, when three phosphate groups are added to adenosine. Adenosine triphosphate is used in cellular metabolism as one of the basic methods of transferring chemical energy between chemical reactions.; Purine inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) are serious hereditary disorders, which should be suspected in any case of neonatal fitting, failure to thrive, recurrent infections, neurological deficit, renal disease, self-mutilation and other manifestations. Investigation usually starts with uric acid (UA) determination in urine and plasma. (OMIM 300322, 229600, 603027, 232400, 232600, 232800, 201450, 220150, 232200, 162000, 164050, 278300). (PMID: 17052198, 17520339)

Description

Adenine is a purine base. Adenine is found in both DNA and RNA. Adenine is a fundamental component of adenine nucleotides. Adenine forms adenosine, a nucleoside, when attached to ribose, and deoxyadenosine when attached to deoxyribose; it forms adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a nucleotide, when three phosphate groups are added to adenosine. Adenosine triphosphate is used in cellular metabolism as one of the basic methods of transferring chemical energy between chemical reactions. Purine inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) are serious hereditary disorders, which should be suspected in any case of neonatal fitting, failure to thrive, recurrent infections, neurological deficit, renal disease, self-mutilation and other manifestations. Investigation usually starts with uric acid (UA) determination in urine and plasma. (OMIM 300322, 229600, 603027, 232400, 232600, 232800, 201450, 220150, 232200, 162000, 164050, 278300). (A3372, A3373).

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